Myopia - Short sight

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Myopia causes blurred vision. The most common problem for those who are shortsighted is difficulty seeing distant objects clearly. Some myopic children have never had clear distance vision and so are not aware of what they are missing. School vision screening will often detect myopia. Frowning and screwing up the eyes in an effort to see better is common and this may cause headaches. Short sighted children will sometimes hold reading material quite close. In their mid to late forties most people with perfect distance vision need reading spectacles, however many people with myopia can see close work clearly without them.

Hyperopia - long sight

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A young “normal” eye looking into the far distance sees clearly without making any focusing effort. A hyperopic (longsighted) young eye looking into the far distance can only see clearly if the muscular focusing system inside the eye is used. A normal eye begins to use its focusing system as an object comes closer. A long sighted eye has to make the same focusing effort for near work as a normal eye, but this is in addition to the effort it makes to keep distance vision clear. With hyperopia, a long sighted eye has to “work harder” than a normal eye at all distances.


Astigmatism - Blurred Vision and Tired Eyes

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Astigmatism is a very common focusing error of the eyes which causes blur. It is caused by the shape of the eye, usually due to the cornea’s surface or occasionally due to the eyes lens being tilted. Sometimes astigmatism can be inherited but it often happens as a normal characteristic of growth.


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Normal healthy, young eyes have a wide range of focus from far distance to a few centimetres. In a young eye the lenses are very flexible. Muscles within the eye have the ability to change the shape if the lens and by doing so, change its focus. This change happens so quickly that we don’t even know our eye is refocusing!


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Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the fluid pressure inside the eye causes progressive damage to parts of the optic nerve. The pressure usually increases when there is inadequate drainage of fluid from inside the eye. A gradual but permanent loss of vision occurs unless the condition is treated.

Aging Eyes

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Cataracts and macular degeneration are two common eye conditions that cause vision deterioration in older people. As we get older many aspects of our vision change. Because of this, it is important to make regular visits to your optometrist. This is so your vision can be monitored. Cataracts and macular degeneration are two conditions that can affect an aging eye by substantially reducing vision. However, both affect your vision very differently. This page provides information about cataracts, macular degeneration, their possible effects and options available for corrective surgery.

Other eye conditions

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Floaters (or spots) are particles which float inside the eye and cast shadows on the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the Retina) reducing vision. Usually nothing more than a nuisance, floaters can result from eye disease or injury and need to be assessed by your optometrist if they suddenly develop or flashing lights occur.



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